Wu and coworkers undertook characterization of pathway-selective insulin resistance and responsivenes in liver and hepatocytes by examining targets of the insulin receptor including NOX4 pathways. They comcluded that functional disturbance of a single molecule, NAD(P)H oxidase 4, is sufficient to induce the key harmful features of deranged insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and other conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia and pathway-selective insulin resistance and responsiveness.
Ref: Wu, X., et al (2012) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 Feb 9. (Epubl ahead of print)